Indonesia has made significant progress in preparing for and responding to disasters. Strong political commitment and increasingly professional institutions are supporting the country’s strengthening disaster management system. None-the-less challenges remain, particularly at the sub-national level. Building capacities of local authorities on preparedness and response is needed to be able to effectively address frequently occurring disasters. Timeliness of getting resources to affected communities, particularly in remote areas, is another challenge. The international humanitarian community, with coordination support from OCHA, works to complement the government’s preparedness and response efforts.
The OCHA-managed Humanitarian Response Fund (HRF) continues to be an important tool to incorporate the capacities of national and international NGOs into disaster response. In 2012, the HRF allocated over US$1 million to twelve projects throughout Indonesia. HRF projects addressed urgent needs in a variety of sectors including water and sanitarian, shelter, livelihoods, health, food and nutrition.
With an average of one-hundred small to medium scale disasters each year in Indonesia, investment in preparedness is essential to increasing response effectiveness. In addition to saving lives and safeguarding livelihoods, building resilience to future disasters is a priority. This includes greater understanding of how to initiate, receive and coordinate international humanitarian action and mobilize resources.
During 2012, OCHA continued to systematically engage with Indonesia’s national and local disaster management agencies (BNPB/BPBD) on strengthen institutional capacity. Following disaster management workshops for BNPB/BPBD senior managers in 2011, OCHA, together with the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), began the ‘Disaster Management Capacity Building Project’ in mid-2012. CHA also supports the Government in reviewing disaster management policies and regulations such as the role of the international community in disaster response and the 2007 Disaster Management Law.
Since 2008, OCHA has supported four UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) courses for national disaster managers. The UNDAC methodology has been integrated into BNPB training, which was adopted in October 2012 as the Indonesian Rapid Assessment and Coordination (IRAC). In collaboration with UN, NGO, Red Cross, academic, private sector partners, OCHA is also supporting development of BNPB training modules for the Government’s Disaster Relief Training Ground, using the UNDAC methodology as the base. The training will include rapid assessment and information management, as well as field simulations.
OCHA has also strengthened its partnership with the Indonesia National Search and Rescue Agency (BASARNAS), including providing technical advice and liaison with international entities. The prominence of search and rescue activities (SAR) has increased, with BASARNAS hosting a series of regional SAR exercises for Asia and Pacific partners. Following an expert mission from the Netherlands to identify gaps in national capacity, Indonesia is working with OCHA and the INSARAG Secretariat on international accreditation of its SAR team.
Disaster preparedness and resilience were an important focus in 2012. In March, the Inter-Cluster Preparedness Package (ICPP) was launched to expand contingency planning efforts. Through the clusters, the ICPP is working on an integrated approach to preparedness through increased collaboration between humanitarian actors and government, and with recovery and development sectors. Specific contingency planning activities included support to BNPB and BPBD in developing flood plans for Jakarta, Yogyakarta, West Java, Central Java, and East Java as well as simulation exercises in West Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara and South Sulawesi. The Jakarta Participatory Mapping for Preparedness project, a collaboration involving Jakarta BPBD, AIFDR, the World Bank, the University of Indonesia and OCHA, was completed. OCHA also continued to support strengthening of national and local resilience by leading the disaster management/resilience pillar of the 2011-2015 UN Partnership for Development Framework (UNPDF).
During 2012, OCHA increased its engagement with private sector actors. OCHA worked with the Indonesian Chambers of Commerce (KADIN) on identifying business professionals interested in collaborating on disaster preparedness and response. In May/June, OCHA facilitated meetings between KADIN, BNPB, World Bank, IOM and ILO to agree a joint approach on contributions to government policy making and to define private sector capacity requirements, with an emphasis on micro and small enterprises. Following, a workshop on building disaster preparedness in micro and small enterprises was held in October 2012. OCHA also helped to set up two working groups; one to map private sector engagement and a second on risk financing. These efforts are contributing to a clearer picture on opportunities and threats as well as identifying what is needed to roll out a tri-partite (Government /Private Sector/Civil Society) approach in Indonesia.
In rolling out the IASC Transformative Agenda, OCHA worked with the World Food Programme, the Emergency Capacity Building Project and BNPB to strengthen the coordinated assessments process with the new Multi-cluster Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA).